Sources and Resources

Fortin, Patricia, and Justin Kwan.
“The Myopia Management Opportunity in the United States Using the 2020 Census.”
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 1 June 2022

Joachim, Nichole, et al.
“The Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration over 15 Years: The Blue Mountains Eye Study.”
PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Dec. 2015

TC, Burton.
“The Influence of Refractive Error and Lattice Degeneration on the Incidence of Retinal Detachment.”
Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1989.

Pan, Chen-Wei, et al.
“Differential Associations of Myopia With Major Age-Related Eye Diseases.”
Ophthalmology, American Academy of Ophthalmology, Feb. 2013

Bullimore, Mark A, et al.
“The Risks and Benefits of Myopia Control - Ophthalmology.”
Ophthalmology, American Academy of Ophthalmology, 4 May 2021

Eye Disease 1.8x -3.00 -6.00 -10.00
Myopic Macular
1.87x 6.53x 42.76x 522.9x
Retinal Detachment 1.43x 2.92x 8.55x 35.76x
Glaucoma 1.39x 2.69x 7.21x 26.92x
Cumulative Risk of
Myopia Related
Visual Impairment*
4% 7% 10% 21%

*These percentages are approximated assuming an average life span, and are only referring to myopia related visual impairment.

Helpful Resources:

Learn more about what myopia management is here:

  1. What Myopia Management Is and What It Is Not

Learn more about some of the treatment options here:

  1. Consider Ortho-K For Myopia Control

Studies about the efficacy of nighttime corneal molding:

  1. Efficacy and Acceptability of Orthokeratology for Slowing Myopic Progression in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
  2. Effect of Orthokeratology on myopia progression: twelve-year results of a retrospective cohort study
  3. Efficacy, predictability and safety of long-term orthokeratology: An 18-year follow-up study
  4. Effects of orthokeratology on the progression of low to moderate myopia in Chinese children

Studies about the efficacy of peripheral defocus soft contact lenses:

  1. Long-term Effect of Dual-focus Contact Lenses on Myopia Progression in Children: A 6-year Multicenter Clinical Trial
  2. A 3-year Randomized Clinical Trial of MiSight Lenses for Myopia Control
  3. VTI Shares One-Year Data from PROTECT Trial at AAO 2023
  4. Reduction of Myopic Progression Using a Multifocal Soft Contact Lens: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Studies about the efficacy of low dose Atropine:

  1. Efficacy Results from the Atropine in the Treatment of Myopia (ATOM) Study
  2. Effect of Low-Concentration Atropine Eyedrops vs Placebo on Myopia Incidence in Children: The LAMP2 Randomized Clinical Trial
  3. Efficacy and Safety of 0.01% and 0.02% Atropine for the Treatment of Pediatric Myopia Progression Over 3 Years
  4. Role of Atropine in the control of Myopia Progression- A Review

Other relevant studies:

  1. Effectiveness of myopia control interventions: A systematic review of 12 randomized control trials published between 2019 and 2021
  2. Dim Light Exposure and Myopia in Children
  3. The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses

Older studies showing how long these treatments have been actively used for:

  1. Orthokeratology and Adolescent Myopia Control
  2. Reducing the progression of myopia with atropine: a long term cohort study of Olmsted County students
  3. Myopia Control: A Review